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The following article want to reach a new discussion about the second law of thermodynamics. The starting point is the hypothetical scheme of a perpetuum mobile (perpetual motion machine) of second kind.

The assumption of a perpetuum mobile of  second kind is, that energy can't get lost and thermal energy, which is flowing out from a rotating wheel by friction, can get back to the wheel by complete back transformation of this thermal energy into mechanic rotation. But in this principle, the second law of  thermodynamics exclude such a circle of energy flow. At first, the conversion of mechanical energy ( energy with lower probability ) into thermal energy ( energy with higher probability ) is possible in direction of higher entropy, but in contrary, a voluntary complete back transformation into mechanical motion, with a decrease of entropy, isn't possible without energy consumption from outside the system.
The following proposal of a perpetuum mobile of second kind want to refute this exclusion and in that way the second law of thermodynamics.

                perpet englisch                        

In the picture  is shown a closed system, in that over a surface of pure water ( on the ground ) exists a saturated water atmosphere. However, this atmosphere is not in equilibrium with the solution in the upper cylinder, because a water vapour pressure over a solution of a substance (without own vapour pressure) is always lower than those over pure water. This results a stream of water molecules from pure water on the ground into the atmosphere and from there following into the solution of the upper cylinder. This caused an increasing water level and consequently increasing hydrostatic pressure on the semi permeable membrane on the lower end of the cylinder. When the pressure exeed the osmotic pressure of the solution, a pure water drop can flow through the membrane and falls down over a water wheel. The endless circle is fulfilled.
Before further explanation, another example of  a perpetuum mobile of second kind in the next link is shown.

   Levenspiel's fountain.